What Temperatures Should Vaccines Be?
Using Temperature Data to Solve Cold-Chain Equipment Problems
Using Front-Opening Refrigerators
Giving an Orally Administered Vaccine
How to Read a VVM
New Vaccine Introduction
IIP-Vaccine Cold Chain
Use and basic maintenance of cold chain and temperature monitoring equipment
Some vaccines are sensitive to freezing. Once they have frozen, they should not be used. Fortunately, there is a way to tell if a freeze sensitive vaccine has been damaged by exposure to temperatures below zero degrees Celsius: the shake test.